高强度间歇训练对青年男子篮球运动员有氧、无氧运动能力的影响
Effects of High-intensity Intermittent Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercise Performance in Juvenile Male Basketball Athletes

目的探讨不同高强度间歇训练(HIT)方案对青年男子篮球运动员有氧无氧运动能力、生理适应以及肌肉损伤的影响。方法 45名男子篮球运动员随机分为上肢HIT组、下肢HIT组和对照组,每组n=15。对照组进行常规训练,上肢HIT组和下肢HIT组在常规训练基础上分别进行4周(2次/周)上肢或下肢HIT方案训练。于实验前后通过递增负荷实验测定有氧运动能力,Wingate实验测定无氧运动能力,取静脉血测定血浆肌酸激酶(CK)、乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)、睾酮(T)和皮质醇(C)含量。结果上肢递增负荷运动实验时,上肢HIT组最大有氧功率(MAP)增加(P<0.05),下肢HIT组乳酸阈功率(PLT)升高(P<0.05)。下肢Wingate实验时,下肢HIT组第4次全力蹬车时的平均功率(MP)和峰值功率(PP)上升(P<0.05),第3和第4次全力蹬车时的血乳酸下降(P<0.05)。下肢HIT组T/C比值上调(P<0.05)。对照组各指标均无显著性变化(P>0.05)。结论青年男子篮球运动员上肢HIT仅改善上肢有氧运动能力,而下肢HIT则同时提高上肢有氧运动能力和下肢无氧运动能力。

Objective The present study was to investigate the effects of high-intensity intermittent training(HIT) on aerobic and anaerobic performance, and on physiological and muscle damage markers responses in juvenile male basketball athletes. Methods Forty-five juvenile male basketball athletes were randomly allocated to upper-body HIT group(n=15), lower-body HIT group(n=15) and control group(n=15). Subjects in control group performed routine training protocol while those in upper-body and lower-body HIT groups conducted four weeks(two times/week) upper-body HIT or lower-body HIT respectively. Before and after experiment, aerobic performance by graded exercise test, anaerobic performance by Wingate test and plasma creatine kinase(CK), lactate dehydrogenase(LDH), testosterone(T) and cortisol(C) concentration were determined. Results During upper-body graded exercise test, maximal aerobic power(MAP) increased in upper-body HIT group(P<0.05), power at lactic acid threshold(PLT) raised in lower-body HIT group(P<0.05); during lower-body Wingate test, mean power(MP) and peak power(PP) in the fourth Wingate test(P<0.05) and there was a decrease in the delta blood lactate in the third and fourth bouts in lower-body HIT group(P<0.05); T/C ratio upregulated in lower-body HIT group(P<0.05); no change of all parameters was observed in the control group(P>0.05). Conclusions Upper-body HIT only improved upper-body aerobic performance, while lower-body HIT enhanced both upper-body aerobic and lower-body anaerobic performance in juvenile male basketball athletes.

河南省重点科技攻关项目(172102310141);

高强度间歇训练; 篮球运动员; 运动能力; 生理适应; 肌肉损伤;

high-intensity intermittent training; basketball athletes; performance; physiological adaptation; muscle damage;

10.16063/j.cnki.issn1001-747x.2019.02.016

G841

659211-21991766K