Online Publishing Date:2019-02-01 16:50

从个人账户到个人养老金:城乡居民基本养老保险结构性改革再思考
From Individual Account to Individual Pension: Rethinking of Structural Reform of Basic Pension Insurance for Urban and Rural Residents

近十年来,城乡居民基本养老保险在扩大覆盖面等方面取得了显著成就,但也暴露出一些现实问题:一是统账结合模式和累进补贴机制造成社会公平困境;二是个人账户在筹资水平、收益水平和保障功能方面表现出较大的效率损失;三是个人账户管理层级较低,加重了地方政府的管理责任和财政负担。从理论上看,城乡居民养老保险是一种混合型制度,其统账结合的实质是将普惠型公共养老金和个人养老金捆绑,但这两部分都不具备社会保险的性质。自愿性制度设计的重点是激励性,但由于个人账户产权不清晰和收益率优势的丧失,城乡居民养老保险的参与深度很低。本文认为,完善制度的重点是统账分离,建立独立的普惠型公共养老金制度,并将个人账户完善为自愿参加的第三支柱个人养老金制度,同时将家庭成员间的互助作为正式制度纳入其中。

Individual account of basic pension insurance for urban and rural residents has made remarkable achievements in expanding coverage. But there are also some practical problems in the system in the past ten years.Firstly,the system model of combining individual account with social pool and progressive subsidy mechanism seriously affects social equity. Secondly,individual account show loss of efficiency in terms of financing level,rate of return and pension level. Thirdly,the management level of individual account management is low,which aggravated the responsibility and financial burden of local governments. In theory,basic pension insurance or urban and rural residents is mixed system and combining individual account with social pool combines public pension with private pension substantively,however,neither of two parts is social insurance. Voluntary system design focuses on incentive,but the participation depth of this system is very low due to the unclear property rights of individual accounts and the loss of yield advantage. This paper holds the opinion that we should separate individual account from social pool,and establish an independent public pension system. Meanwhile,we should reform the individual accounts into the third pillar of individual pension system,in which individuals voluntarily participate. In addition,we should also take mutual assistance of family members as a formal system into the individual pension.

城乡居民基本养老保险; 个人账户; 统账分离; 个人养老金;

basic pension insurance for urban and rural residents; individual account; separation of individual account and social pool; individual pension;

F842.67

17093-1210720K